China, India, and Brazil are the leading producers of this plant in the world. Wax statues of Lin Zexu (right) and Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Daoguang in Fuzhou city of Fujian province on May 23, 2013. In 1817, the British began to sell a narcotic drug, Indian opium, to China as a way to reduce the trade deficit and to make the Indian colony profitable. As detailed in chapter 3, historical and literary representations of Qing-era women consuming tobacco— be it the peasant woman with her rough-hewn pipe or the upperclass matron with her more elegant and refined water pipe— are too common to allow for any other interpretation. British-American Tobacco Company Limited is among the first batch of firms that introduced cigarettes to China. The socially and spatially differentiated smoking habits outlined in the preceding chapter were part of a growing urban-rural divide in China that by the 1930s “was palpable and real.”¹ In the early twentieth century, industrialization in the treaty ports brought about intensified urbanization along the coast.² As urban standards of living improved relative to those in the countryside, the notion that it was better to live in a city than in a small town, already percolating in the late Qing period, emerged full-blown. $49.95 Ralph Croizier, Carol Benedict Golden‐Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550–2010.. In some ways, the growing popularity of cigarettes in the late Qing and early Republican periods represented a remarkable transformation in consumer preferences in China, just as it did in other markets targeted by newly established transnational tobacco companies. In 1752, Li Ê, the Han River Poetry Society lyricist who had so passionately promoted tobacco during his lifetime, passed away in his beloved city of Hangzhou. [Photo/tobaccochina.com]. As the author notes, “ the history of the cigarette in China was simply an amplification of earlier patterns of tobacco production, marketing, and consumption” (p. 131). On his arrival at Guangzhou, Lin banned the sale of opium, demanded that all opium be surrendered to the Chinese authorities, and required that all foreign traders sign a "no opium trade" bond. Farmlands were inspected to eliminate opium poppies. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. From the long-stemmed pipe to snuff, the water pipe, hand-rolled cigarettes, and finally, manufactured cigarettes, the history of tobacco in China is the fascinating story of a commodity that became a … Log in to your personal account or through your institution. Since the founding of People's Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government launched a vigorous crackdown on drugs and tobacco. Overall 20,000 chests (each holding about 55 kilograms) were handed over and destroyed in a 23-day campaign beginning June 3, 1839. Despite its common origins in the Americas, NewWorld tobacco followed a somewhat different historical trajectory in China than it did in Europe. [Photo/xinhuanet.com.cn]. The earliest tobacco control legislation in the world was in Asia (Singapore, 1970) and bans on duty-free cigarettes (Singapore) and on smokeless tobacco (Hong Kong, 1987), as well as the use of tobacco tax to fund health promotion (Thailand) have … Tobacco was introduced to China in the 16th and 17th centuries (Benedict, 2011). [ citation needed ] China tobacco also markets premium brands, notably Chunghwa . Golden-Silk Smoke: A History of Tobacco in China, 1550-2010. The content (including but not limited to text, photo, multimedia information, etc) published in this site belongs to China Daily Information Co (CDIC). on JSTOR. You do not have access to this Is is not easy to find a comprehensive history of tobacco use in China, most English language sources concentrate on the modern period. Drawing from a wealth of historical sources-gazetteers, literati jottings (biji), Chinesemateria medica,Qing poetry, modern short stories, late Qing and early Republican newspapers, travel memoirs, social surveys, advertisements, and more-Golden-Silk Smokenot only uncovers the long and dynamic history of tobacco in China but also sheds new light on global histories of fashion and consumption. All Rights Reserved. var oTime = new Date(); In 1637, Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911) Emperor Kangxi expanded the death penalty to those who possess tobacco. With more than 300 million smokers, China is a country with a high-burden of tobacco-use and, also, one of five focus countries for the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. China includes approximately one‐fifth of the world's population, and has the world's second largest economy. China's anti-smoking movement was first recorded in 1639, when Ming Dynasty (AD 1368-1644) Emperor Chongzhen issued a national ban on tobacco and stipulated that tobacco addicts be executed. Carol Benedict. Taking the long view, as I do in the preceding pages, not only allows for comparisons with other societies undergoing similar transformations in their own local cultures of tobacco consumption since 1550 or so; it also facilitates analysis of continuity and change in Chinese consumption practices across the late imperial–modern divide. Tobacco leaves are sun-dried to reduce the toxicity. Even as the fortunes of individual companies rose and fell, consumer demand for cigarettes only continued to increase. Asia has shown that tobacco control is not the prerogative of western countries. Catherine was so impressed with snuff’s palliative effect on her One-third of the world's smokers--over 350 million--now live in China, and they account for 25 percent of worldwide smoking-related deaths. In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor appointed Lin Zexu Governor of Guangdong province to reduce and eliminate the opium trade. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Much of this domestically produced tobacco was traded locally or intraregionally, but by the eighteenth century a thriving market had also developed for high-end tobacco leaf produced in specialized growing districts... From its earliest introduction in the late Ming period to its wide dispersal in the Qing era, NewWorld tobacco traveled inmultiple directions and alongmyriad paths to become “Chinese.” This process of transculturation was not unique to China, of course, but occurred at roughly the same pace in other parts of Eurasia where other peoplewere first learning to use Amerindian tobacco. Average annual outputs were 0.965, 2.106 and 2.921 million tonnes for the periods 1970-1978, 1979-1992 and 1993-1999, respectively. $49.95. China, with its then-430,000,000 potential customers, he told company executives, “is where we are going to sell cigarettes.”¹ When informed that the Chinese did not yet smoke cigarettes, Duke said he supposed they could learn. Although civilians were banned from the puff of pleasure, China's top leaders in the older generation took up the practice with gusto. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and This book gives a detailed early history as well as a well-referenced account of the spread When American tobacco tycoon James Duke (1865–1925) heard about the invention of the cigarette-rollingmachine in 1881, he reportedly leafed through an atlas to find the legend listing the world’s largest population. 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